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Small prototype coils were constructed and tested for experimental validation and these demonstrate that with a reasonable estimate of material properties, thermal performance can be improved considerably with negligible change to the field error or standard figures of merit.

Do contrails significantly reduce daily temperature range? One of the most visible anthropogenic phenomena in the atmosphere is the occurrence of contrails. The direct effects of contrails on surface temperature are investigated on the basis of the data sets for the cloud cover and surface temperature over the conterminous United States for the period It is shown that the increase of the average daily temperature range DTR over the United States during the three-day grounding period of September cannot be attributed to the absence of contrails, a subject was debated in several previous studies.

The present analysis suggests that the DTR is attributed to the change of low cloudiness. Report P, September 19, The Endangered Species Act ESA ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley.

Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources.

A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature , and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria.

The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other. Beaty, D. The RSSB's first task was to address the effect of heating during acquisition and storage of samples on scientific investigations that could be expected to be conducted if the samples are returned to Earth.

Sample heating may cause changes that could ad-versely affect scientific investigations. Previous studies of temperature requirements for returned mar-tian samples fall within a wide range to 50 degrees Centigrade and, for mission concepts that have a life detection component, the recommended threshold was less than or equal to degrees Centigrade. The RSSB was asked by the Mars project to determine whether or not a temperature requirement was needed within the range of 30 to 70 degrees Centigrade.

There are eight expected temperature regimes to which the samples could be exposed, from the moment that they are drilled until they are placed into a temperature -controlled environment on Earth. Two of those - heating during sample acquisition drilling and heating while cached on the Martian surface - potentially subject samples to the highest temperatures.

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We considered 11 scientific investigations where thermal excursions may have an adverse effect on the science outcome. Statistical downscaling of mean temperature , maximum temperature , and minimum temperature on the Loess Plateau, China. Climate change is considered to be one of the greatest environmental threats. This has urged scientific communities to focus on the hot topic. Global climate models GCMs are the primary tool used for studying climate change.

However, GCMs are limited because of their coarse spatial resolution and inability to resolve important sub-grid scale features such as terrain and clouds. Statistical downscaling methods can be used to downscale large-scale variables to local-scale. We also show that SDSM can effectively reduce uncertainty, compared with the raw model outputs. TMEAN uncertainty was reduced by The corresponding reductions in uncertainty were Total maximum daily loads, sediment budgets, and tracking restoration progress of the north coast watersheds.

One of the predominate water quality problems for northern coastal California watersheds is the impairment of salmonid habitat. Consideration for linkage to watershed models and ecologica This article presents a seven-step procedure for developing environmentally safe total maximum daily loads TMDLs for selenium. The need for this information stems from recent actions taken by the U.

However, there is no technical Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load.

The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature -derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days.

The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data. Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada Vincent and Gullett Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments Vincent et al. Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t PMT test Wang et al. A software package RHtestsV3 Wang and Feng has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series.

A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching QM algorithm Wang was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada.

Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective.

A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema. Climatological observing window COW is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval.

The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema.

Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature.

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Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year to , obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema. Estimation and prediction of maximum daily rainfall at Sagar Island using best fit probability models. Sagar Island, setting on the continental shelf of Bay of Bengal, is one of the most vulnerable deltas to the occurrence of extreme rainfall-driven climatic hazards. Information on probability of occurrence of maximum daily rainfall will be useful in devising risk management for sustaining rainfed agrarian economy vis-a-vis food and livelihood security.

Using six probability distribution models and long-term daily rainfall data, we studied the probability of occurrence of annual, seasonal and monthly maximum daily rainfall MDR in the island. To select the best fit distribution models for annual, seasonal and monthly time series based on maximum rank with minimum value of test statistics, three statistical goodness of fit tests, viz.

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The fourth probability distribution was identified from the highest overall score obtained from the three goodness of fit tests. Results revealed that normal probability distribution was best fitted for annual, post-monsoon and summer seasons MDR, while Lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 were best fitted for pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons, respectively.

The estimated annual MDR were 50, 69, 86, and mm for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 years, respectively. For different recurrence intervals, the percent probability of MDR varied widely across intra- and inter-annual periods. In the island, rainfall anomaly can pose a climatic threat to the sustainability of agricultural production and thus needs adequate adaptation and mitigation measures. Mid-depth temperature maximum in an estuarine lake. Stepanenko, V. Yu; Gorin, S.

We argue that the main prerequisite for mid-depth TeM development is a salinity increase below the freshwater mixed layer, sharp enough in order to increase the temperature with depth not to cause convective mixing and double diffusion there. Given that this condition is satisfied, the TeM magnitude is controlled by physical factors which we identified as: radiation absorption below the mixed layer, mixed-layer temperature dynamics, vertical heat conduction and water-sediments heat exchange.

Based on the LAKE model results we quantify the contribution of the above listed mechanisms and find their individual significance highly sensitive to water turbidity. We exemplify the effect of mixed-layer depth on TeM by a set of selected lakes. On the location of the maximum homogeneous crystal nucleation temperature. Detailed considerations are given to the location of the temperature of maximum homogeneous nucleation as predicted by classical nucleation theory.

Also, it is demonstrated tha T-asterisk may be considered to be approximately dependent upon two parameters: gamma, the ratio of the difference in specific heat between the crystal and liquid divided by the entropy of fusion, and E, a reduced activation energy for viscous flow.

The variation of T-asterisk with these parameters is described. The relationship of the relative location of T-asterisk to the glass transition temperature , is discussed too. This discussion is couched within the framework of the strong and fragile liquid notion introduced by Angell and coworkers. Finally, the question of the ultimate limits to the undercooling of liquid metals is considered and its relationhsip to computations of the maximum nucleation temperature in such systems.

Daily rhythmicity of body temperature in the dog.


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Research over the past 50 years has demonstrated the existence of circadian or daily rhythmicity in the body core temperature of a large number of mammalian species. However, previous studies have failed to identify daily rhythmicity of body temperature in dogs. We report here the successful recording of daily rhythms of rectal temperature in female Beagle dogs. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal. Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology IM.

Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them.

The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: i preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, ii detection and correction of problems of homogeneity.

In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both. Razuvaev, V. The stations in this dataset are considered by RIHMI to comprise one of the best networks suitable for temperature and precipitation monitoring over the the former-USSR.

Factors involved in choosing these stations included length or record, amount of missing data, and achieving reasonably good geographic coverage. The relative quality and accuracy of the common station records in the two databases also cannot be easily assessed. As of this writing, most of the common stations contained in the GHCND have more recent records, but not necessarily records starting as early as the records available here. This database contains four variables: daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature , and daily total precipitation liquid equivalent.


Temperature were taken three times a day from , four times a day from , and eight times a day since Daily mean temperature is defined as the average of all observations for each calendar day. See the measurement description file for further details. Daily precipitation totals are also available to the nearest tenth of a millimeter for each station. Throughout the record, daily precipitation is defined as the total amount of precipitation recorded during a h period, snowfall being converted to a liquid total by melting the snow in the gauge.

From on, rain gauges were checked several times each day; the cumulative total of all observations during a calendar day was presumably used as the. On estimating total daily evapotranspiration from remote surface temperature measurements. A method for calculating daily evapotranspiration from the daily surface energy budget using remotely sensed surface temperature and several meteorological variables is presented. Vaules of the coefficients are determined from simulations with a one-dimensional boundary layer model with vegetation cover.

Model constants are obtained for vegetation and bare soil at two air temperature and wind speed levels over a range of surface roughness and wind speeds. A different means of estimating the daily evapotranspiration based on the time rate of increase of surface temperature during the morning is also considered. Both the equations using our model-derived constants and field measurements are evaluated, and a discussion of sources of error in the use of the formulation is given.

Linking trading ratio with TMDL total maximum daily load allocation matrix and uncertainty analysis. An innovative approach for total maximum daily load TMDL allocation and implementation is the watershed-based pollutant trading. Given the inherent scientific uncertainty for the tradeoffs between point and nonpoint sources, setting of trading ratios can be a contentious issue and was already listed as an obstacle by several pollutant trading programs.

One of the fundamental reasons that a trading ratio is often set higher e. However, most of the available studies did not provide an approach to explicitly address the determination of trading ratio. Uncertainty analysis has rarely been linked to determination of trading ratio.

This paper presents a practical methodology in estimating "equivalent trading ratio ETR " and links uncertainty analysis with trading ratio determination from TMDL allocation process. Determination of ETR can provide a preliminary evaluation of "tradeoffs" between various combination of point and nonpoint source control strategies on ambient water quality improvement. A greater portion of NPS load reduction in overall TMDL load reduction generally correlates with greater uncertainty and thus requires greater trading ratio.

The rigorous quantification of trading ratio will enhance the scientific basis and thus public perception for more informed decision in overall watershed-based pollutant trading program. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed.

Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult.

A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations. During national holiday and weekend, human activity and anthropogenic emission are expected to be much less than those during workday.

Therefore, the contrast of environmental factors i. For example, daily maximum Tmax , minimum Tmin and mean Tmean air temperatures during the Chinese Spring Festival holiday were found to be 0. We evaluated the contrasts using daily meteorological observations collected at stations in China from to The contrasts were evaluated with two methods. The first directly compared air temperatures between Chinese Spring Festival holiday and nearby workdays.

The second first composited a daily climatology of air temperatures centered on the first day of Chinese Spring Festival holiday, and the seasonal cycles of air temperatures were then removed using polynomial regressions. The average of the derived daily deviation of air temperatures can be regarded as anthropogenic impact of Chinese Spring Festival holiday. We found that these two methods obtained nearly the same results. However, we found that the so-called anthropogenic impact during Chinese Spring Festival was not unique because the daily deviations of air temperatures had obvious weekly oscillations.

These results indicate that the so-called anthropogenic impacts are primarily caused by natural variability, i. This study also has great implication for the studies on weekend effect of the environmental factors. Long-term trends in daily temperature extremes in Iraq. The existence of long-term persistence LTP in hydro-climatic time series can lead to considerable change in significance of trends.

Therefore, past findings of climatic trend studies that did not consider LTP became a disputable issue. A study has been conducted to assess the trends in temperature and temperature extremes in Iraq in recent years using both ordinary Mann-Kendal MK test; and the modified Mann-Kendall m-MK test, which can differentiate the multi-decadal oscillatory variations from secular trends. Trends in annual and seasonal minimum and maximum temperatures , diurnal temperature range DTR , and 14 temperature -related extremes were assessed.

The temperature in Iraq is increasing 2 to 7 times faster than global temperature rise. The minimum temperature is increasing more 0. Temperature rise is higher in northern Iraq and in summer. The hot extremes particularly warm nights are increasing all over Iraq at a rate of 2. On the other hand, numbers of cold days are decreasing at some stations at a rate of - 2.

The use of m-MK test along with MK test confirms the significant increase in temperature and some of the temperature extremes in Iraq. This study suggests that trends in many temperature extremes in the region estimated in previous studies using MK test may be due to natural variability of climate, which empathizes the need for validation of the trends by considering LTP in time series. Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle.

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Background Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows.

Results We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.

Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed. Conclusion In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature , although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle. Future changes over the Himalayas: Maximum and minimum temperature. The major aim of this study is to assess the probable future changes in the minimum and maximum climatology and its long-term trend under different RCPs along with the elevation dependent warming over the IHR.

A number of statistical analysis such as changes in mean climatology, long-term spatial trend and probability distribution function are carried out to detect the signals of changes in climate. The study also tries to quantify the uncertainties associated with different model experiments and their ensemble in space, time and for different seasons. The model experiments and their ensemble show prominent cold bias over Himalayas for present climate. However, statistically significant higher warming rate 0. The rate of warming intensifies with the increase in the radiative forcing under a range of greenhouse gas scenarios starting from RCP4.

In addition to this, a wide range of spatial variability and disagreements in the magnitude of trend between different models describes the uncertainty associated with the model projections and scenarios. The projected rate of increase of Tmin may destabilize the snow formation at the higher altitudes in the northern and western parts of Himalayan region, while rising trend of Tmax over southern flank may effectively melt more snow cover. Such combined effect of rising trend of Tmin and Tmax may pose a potential threat to the glacial deposits.

The overall trend of Diurnal temperature range DTR portrays increasing trend across entire area with. Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields loads per unit area. Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways.

The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a or year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.

The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields. Circulation controls of the spatial structure of maximum daily precipitation over Poland.

Among forecasts made on the basis of global and regional climatic models is one of a high probability of an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. Learning the regularities underlying the recurrence and spatial extent of extreme precipitation is obviously of great importance, both economic and social. The main goal of the study was to analyse regularities underlying spatial and temporal variations in monthly Maximum Daily Precipitation Totals MDPTs observed in Poland over the years These data are specific because apart from being spatially discontinuous, which is typical of precipitation, they are also non-synchronic.

The models were built on the basis of empirical anisotropic semivariograms of normalised data. In spite of their spatial discontinuity and asynchronicity, the MDPT data from Poland display marked regularities in their spatial pattern that yield readily to mathematical modelling. The MDPT field in Poland is usually the sum of the outcomes of three types of processes operating at various spatial scales: local km.

Their contributions are highly variable. Generally predominant, however, are high daily precipitation totals with a spatial extent of 50 to km connected with mesoscale phenomena and the migration of atmospheric fronts Vegetation greenness impacts on maximum and minimum temperatures in northeast Colorado. The impact of vegetation on the microclimate has not been adequately considered in the analysis of temperature forecasting and modelling. To fill part of this gap, the following study was undertaken. The NDVI values, representing landscape greenness, act as a proxy for latent heat partitioning via transpiration.

These sites encompass a wide array of environments, from irrigated-urban to short-grass prairie. The explained variance r2 value of surface maximum and minimum temperature by only the — mb layer mean temperature was subtracted from the corresponding explained variance by the — mb layer mean temperature and NDVI values. At most sites, there is a seasonal dependence in the explained variance of the maximum temperatures because of the seasonal cycle of plant growth and senescence.

Between individual sites, the highest increase in explained variance occurred at the site with the least amount of anthropogenic influence. This work suggests the vegetation state needs to be included as a factor in surface temperature forecasting, numerical modeling, and climate change assessments. Future climate change information is important to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change.

Compared to the baseline period, future change in annual and seasonal maximum and minimum temperature was computed after bias correction. The spatial distribution and trend change of annual maximum and minimum temperature were also analyzed using ensemble projections. The results shows that: 1 The downscaling model had a good applicability on reproducing daily and monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature over the whole basin. The impact of daily temperature on renal disease incidence: an ecological study. Extremely high temperatures over many consecutive days have been linked to an increase in renal disease in several cities.

This is becoming increasingly relevant with heatwaves becoming longer, more intense, and more frequent with climate change. This study aimed to extend the known relationship between daily temperature and kidney disease to include the incidence of eight temperature -prone specific renal disease categories - total renal disease, urolithiasis, renal failure, acute kidney injury AKI , chronic kidney disease CKD , urinary tract infections UTIs , lower urinary tract infections LUTIs and pyelonephritis.

Daily data was acquired for maximum , minimum and average temperature over the period of 1 July to 31 March during the warm season October to March in Adelaide, South Australia. Data for daily admissions to all metropolitan hospitals for renal disease, including 83, emergency department admissions and 42, inpatient admissions, was also obtained. Renal outcomes were analyzed using time-stratified negative binomial regression models, with the results aggregated by day. Minimum temperature was associated with the greatest increase in renal disease followed by average temperature and then maximum temperature.

An increased. New results on the mid-latitude midnight temperature maximum. Mesquita, Rafael L. Fabry-Perot interferometer FPI measurements of thermospheric temperatures and winds show the detection and successful determination of the latitudinal distribution of the midnight temperature maximum MTM in the continental mid-eastern United States. A new approach for analyzing the MTM phenomenon is developed, which features the combination of a method of harmonic thermal background removal followed by a 2-D inversion algorithm to generate sequential 2-D temperature residual maps at 30 min intervals.

The simultaneous study of the temperature data from these FPI stations represents a novel analysis of the MTM and its large-scale latitudinal and longitudinal structure. The major finding in examining these maps is the frequent detection of a secondary MTM peak occurring during the early evening hours, nearly 4. The analysis of these observations shows a strong night-to-night variability for this double-peaked MTM structure. A statistical study of the behavior of the MTM events was carried out to determine the extent of this variability with regard to the seasonal and latitudinal dependence.

Recent increase in maximum temperature at the tropical treeline of North America.

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  5. There are only a handful of weather stations above m in the entire American Cordillera, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. I present a surface instrumental record of high elevation treeline ecoclimatic variables for the tropics of North America. Besides its high elevation m and tropical Automated half-hour data collected on Nevado de Colima, Mexico, from to show an increase in maximum temperature during the dry winter season, while incoming solar radiation remained stationary.

    Since minimum temperature did not increase as much, the daily range of air temperature has expanded over time. In fact, spring is the warmest season in this area, as it is followed by pronounced cooling during the summer monsoon because of increased cloudiness. The observed warming is associated with reduced wind speed, especially around solar noon, and is therefore most likely driven by reduced atmospheric flow, suggesting that the energy and water balance of high elevation tropical ecosystems are changing in unexpected ways.

    Further measurements and regional modeling experiments are therefore needed, given the staggering consequences this could have for any resource managers and policy makers concerned with trans-boundary Mexico-US terrestrial, coastal, and oceanic issues. Federal Register , , , , Chloride, Sulfate, TDS. The Arkansas Clean Water Act Wood, Tamara M. We reviewed a mass balance model developed in that guided establishment of the phosphorus total maximum daily load TMDL for Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model and to determine whether improvements could be made using information derived from studies since the model was first developed.

    The new data have contributed to the understanding of processes in the lakes, particularly internal loading of phosphorus from sediment, and include measurements of diffusive fluxes of phosphorus from the bottom sediments, groundwater advection, desorption from iron oxides at high pH in a laboratory setting, and estimates of fluxes of phosphorus bound to iron and aluminum oxides. None of these processes in isolation, however, is large enough to account for the episodically high values of whole-lake internal loading calculated from a mass balance, which can range from 10 to 20 milligrams per square meter per day for short periods.

    The possible role of benthic invertebrates in lake sediments in the internal loading of phosphorus in the lake has become apparent since the development of the TMDL model. Benthic invertebrates can increase diffusive fluxes several-fold through bioturbation and biodiffusion, and, if the invertebrates are bottom feeders, they can recycle phosphorus to the water column through metabolic excretion. These organisms have high densities 1,—62, individuals per square meter in Upper Klamath Lake.

    Conversion of the mean density of tubificid worms Oligochaeta and chironomid midges Diptera , two of the dominant taxa, to an areal flux rate based on laboratory measurements of metabolic excretion of two abundant species suggested that excretion by benthic invertebrates is at least as important as any of the other identified processes for internal loading to the water column.

    Data from sediment cores collected around Upper Klamath Lake since the development of the. Trends and variability of daily temperature extremes during in the Yangtze River Basin, China. The variability of temperature extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing.

    Based on daily minimum and maximum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administ Assessment of extreme value distributions for maximum temperature in the Mediterranean area. Extreme maximum temperatures highly affect the natural as well as the societal environment Heat stress has great effects on flora, fauna and humans and culminates in heat related morbidity and mortality. Agriculture and different industries are severely affected by extreme air temperatures. Even more under climate change conditions, it is necessary to detect potential hazards which arise from changes in the distributional parameters of extreme values, and this is especially relevant for the Mediterranean region which is characterized as a climate change hot spot.

    Therefore statistical approaches are developed to estimate these parameters with a focus on non-stationarities emerging in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors like sea level pressure, geopotential heights, atmospheric temperatures and relative humidity. A s-mode principal component analysis PCA has been performed in order to reduce data dimension and to retain different regions of similar maximum temperature variability. The grid box with the highest PC-loading represents the corresponding principal component. A central part of the analyses is the model development for temperature extremes under the use of extreme value statistics.

    The QR model as well as the scale parameters of the GPD model are conditioned by various large-scale predictor variables. In order to account for potential non-stationarities in the predictors- temperature relationships, a special calibration and validation scheme is applied, respectively. Haylock, M. Hofstra, A. Klein Tank, E. Klok, P. Gender-related differences in maximum gait speed and daily physical activity in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients: a preliminary study.

    Maximum gait speed and physical activity PA relate to mortality and morbidity, but little is known about gender-related differences in these factors in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients. This study aimed to determine differences in maximum gait speed and daily measured PA based on sex and the relationship between these measures in elderly cardiac inpatients. A consecutive elderly Japanese cardiac inpatients mean age, Patient characteristics and maximum gait speed, average step count, and PA energy expenditure PAEE in kilocalorie per day for 2 days assessed by accelerometer were compared between groups.

    Minimum gait speed and step count values in this study might be minimum target values for elderly male and female Japanese cardiac inpatients. Variability in daily , zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures. Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit MSU channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.

    Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo , which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation QBO may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data.

    Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures , though it has been less apparent in and In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the day period band. This correlation can be caused by spacecraft electronic and mechanical effects.

    Routine daily measurements reveal a time dependent sensor coalignment variation. The magnitude of the alignment variation is on the order of arc seconds arc sec , which greatly exceeds the prelaunch thermal structural analysis estimate of 15 acr sec. If unaccounted for, the sensor misalignments due to thermal effects are a significant source of error in attitude determination accuracy. Prominent sources of temperature variation are identified and correlated with the temperature profile observed on the SMM.

    It was determined that even relatively small changes in spacecraft temperature can affect the coalignments between the attitude hardware on the SMM and the science instrument support plate and that frequent recalibration of sensor alignments is necessary to compensate for this effect. An alterntive to frequent recalibration is to model the variation of alignments as a function of temperature and use this to maintain accurate ground or onboard alignment estimates.

    These flight data analysis results may be important consierations for prelaunch analysis of future missions. Izawa, Kazuhiro P. Abstract Maximum gait speed and physical activity PA relate to mortality and morbidity, but little is known about gender-related differences in these factors in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients. Trends in southern California surface maximum temperatures : extremes and heat waves. Analyses were carried out on the entire data set, as well as on the and sub-periods, including construction of spatial distributions and time-series trends of both summer-average and annual- maximum values and of the frequency of two and four consecutive "daytime" heat wave events.

    Spatial patterns of average and extreme values showed three areas consistent with climatological SoCAB flow patterns: cold coastal, warm inland low-elevation, and cool further-inland mountain top. Difference minus distributions of both average and extreme-value trends were consistent with the shorter period study of previous study, as they showed the expected inland regional warming and a "reverse-reaction" cooling in low elevation coastal and inland areas open to increasing sea breeze flows.

    Annual-extreme trends generally showed cooling at sites below m and warming at higher elevations. As the warming trends of the extremes were larger than those of the averages, regional warming thus impacts extremes more than averages. Spatial distributions of hot-day frequencies showed expected maximum at inland low-elevation sites. Regional warming again thus induced increases at both elevated-coastal areas, but low-elevation areas showed reverse-reaction decreases.

    Changes of the time-varying percentiles of daily extreme temperature in China. Identifying the air temperature frequency distributions and evaluating the trends in time-varying percentiles are very important for climate change studies. In order to get a better understanding of the recent temporal and spatial pattern of the temperature changes in China, we have calculated the trends in temporal-varying percentiles of the daily extreme air temperature firstly.

    Then we divide all the stations to get the spatial patterns for the percentile trends using the average linkage cluster analysis method. To make a comparison, the shifts of trends percentile frequency distribution from to are also examined. The three primary clusters were distributed regularly to some extent from north to south, indicating the possible large influence of the latitude. More than half part of the frequency distribution show negative trends less than High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe.

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature minimum, maximum and mean and daily mean wind speed for Europe the CORDEX domain are provided for the period for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions.

    These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step.

    For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties.

    Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe. New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature minimum, maximum and mean and daily mean wind speed for Europe the CORDEX domain are provided for the period for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions.

    These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at hPa.

    Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks. Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature SST is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs.

    A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

    Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature. Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance.

    Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

    Heat kills more people than any other weather-related event in the USA, resulting in hundreds of fatalities each year. In North Carolina, heat-related illness accounts for over 2, yearly emergency department admissions. In this study, data on emergency department ED visits for heat-related illness HRI were obtained from the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool to identify spatiotemporal relationships between temperature and morbidity across six warm seasons May-September from to Spatiotemporal relationships are explored across different regions e.

    This research reveals that most cases of HRI occur on days with climatologically normal temperatures e. They can become the reason for their family and country's fame. Apart from that there is daily horoscope, thought of the day, parenting tips and much more. Pawan Sinha also shares how proper sleep will help to lead a better life.

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